HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 16 MAR 2003 by Scott Parrino
The second part of this six part historical series by "Wild" Bill Wilder discusses the opening moves of both the German and Soviet armies.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 15 MAR 2003 by Scott Parrino
The first part of this six part historical series by "Wild" Bill Wilder introduces the two opposing armies on World War II's eastern front.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 27 JAN 2003 by Jeff Vitous
Jeff Vitous examines the Middle Aged period in which Scotland gained its independence from the kingdom of England in this detailed historical article.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 21 NOV 2002 by Scott Parrino
This historical article is book primer, an introduction to Romulus Hillsborough's book, RYOMA Life of a Renaissance Samurai. The article is reprinted with permission from Romulus Hillsborough and it originally appeared in the Spring 2002 issue of Tokyo Journal.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 12 SEP 2002 by Scott Parrino
Our friend and fellow wargaming enthusiast Gary Schofield unveiled today at the Pentagon a painting which he composed to commemorate the fallen on September 11th. View this painting, now publicly on display at The Pentagon.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 10 JUN 2002 by Scott Parrino
"On the edge of victory though, the German high command became paralyzed over what the next course of action should be. By the time a firm decision was made, the war in the east could not be so easily won. The root of the German problem lay in a lack of strategic direction and an increasingly chaotic command and control system in the highest echelons of the Army."
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 27 MAY 2002 by Scott Parrino
Michael Eckenfels and Jim Zabek reflect on the history of Memorial Day: both personal and national.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 21 JUL 2001 by Scott Parrino
The War of 1812 had many causes, among them the support of American Indian tribes by the British government. This relationship began during the Seven Years War, when England defeated French and Indian forces, claiming territory from Quebec to the Mississippi. The Indians were accustomed to receiving gifts and tribute from the French settlers, a practice ended by England. In 1763, the Ottawa chief, Pontiac, led a rebellion that overran eight British forts in the Midwest and Great Lakes region. The rising cost of occupation came to the attention of Parliament, which then decided that American colonists should bear the brunt of this expense and sharply raised taxes. This in turn contributed to the American Revolution of 1776.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 27 FEB 2001 by Scott Parrino
The battle that was the Waterloo of the Persian Empire has been the source of historic myth for centuries. Arrian, in his The Campaigns of Alexander, estimates the Persian army at Guagamala as 1,000,000 infantry, 40000 cavalry, 200 scythe-chariots, and a few elephants. Alexander has 7000 cavalry and about 40000 infantry. No elephants! When the battle was over and Alexander was victorious there lay on the field of battle about 300,000 Persians. Persian prisoners greatly exceeded that number. On the Macedonian side about 100 men were killed. Arrian notes that over 1000 horses, most of them from the Companions, died either from wounds or from exhaustion, chasing the Persians in the rout! There is no mention of whether the elephants were among the casualties.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 25 FEB 2001 by Scott Parrino
In June of 68 CE, the Emperor Nero, the last of Julio-Claudians, was dead, and another had already claimed the title of Emperor - Servius Sulpicius Galba. Governor of Hispania Tarraconensis from AD 61-68, Galba didn't arrive in Rome until October of 68, and did not live beyond January of 69. He was murdered by Marcus Salvius Otho, Governor of Lusitania AD 58-68. Otho was in Rome as Galba's follower, but had him murdered. Otho was proclaimed Emperor in January of 69. But by then another had already claimed the title, Aulus Vitellius, Governor of Lower Germany, who's legions proclaimed him Emperor for no better reason then he was their commander.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 16 FEB 2001 by Scott Parrino
To Westerners, "Shogun" is a naughty word that conjures up images of a brutal warlord encased in layers of in shiny black-lacquered armor waving a bloody samurai sword over his head and shouting “Banzai!” As politically incorrect as this vision may seem, it is not that far from the truth.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 13 FEB 2001 by Scott Parrino
From its inception, the Pz Kpfw III was visualized as Germany's tank vs. tank fighting vehicle. It was intended to spearhead the Blitzkrieg for the lighter Pz Kpfw I and II, with the heavier-gunned Pz Kpfw IV riding shotgun in the support role. To insure success in this role, General Heinz Guderian and others in the armored forces wanted a 50mm gun, while the Army Weapons Branch pushed for a 37mm weapon in an effort maintain standardization with present anti-tank guns.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 30 DEC 2000 by Scott Parrino
In 1274, and again in 1281, armies under the banner of the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan attempted an invasion of the Japanese mainland. Led by the shikken, or regents, of the Hojo clan, the Japanese struggled to combat an enemy whose style of warfare differed greatly from their own. Whether the Japanese could have successfully adapted to the Mongol tactics is a moot point: in both cases, the invasion was cut short by storms that were to be known as the kami-kaze, or “divine wind.”
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 23 DEC 2000 by Scott Parrino
More powerful than a hand cannoneer and with a reach longer than an elite longbowmen, the Turkish Janissary is the best archer in Age of Empires. From his debut in the Age of Kings expansion to his resurgence in the Conqueror Expansion, the Janissary has earned the reputation of being the most fearsome missile-armed infantryman in the game system. Everybody wants one (or twenty) on their team in the on-line games.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 20 DEC 2000 by Scott Parrino
October 23rd, 1939. The Soviet Union and Germany signed a non-aggression pact. It was also an agreement of dividing the Baltic area into their areas of influence. Finland was a part of Soviet Union's area. During fall of 1939, the Soviet Union demanded several times of Finland that they give away some land areas to Russia in order to improve that country's ability to defend Leningrad. Those land areas they demanded were part of the Karelian Isthmus, and some islands in the Finnish Gulf, including Suursaari and Koivisto. The Soviets also wanted to establish a military base to cape of Hanko, and a part of Kalastajasaarento island lying off the coast of Finland in the Barents Sea.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 26 NOV 2000 by Scott Parrino
Despite its crucial importance in Greek history, and the role it played in the rise of Macedonia, relatively little of the details of the battle of the Field of Crocus have been recorded.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 30 OCT 2000 by Scott Parrino
Following attacks by the Marcomanni and Quadi, the Roman Empire was assaulted by increasingly powerful armies. By the 4th century, the Alamanni, Franks and Goths attained large power bases in Gaul and Germany. Foreshadowing later feudalistic norms, warriors for these tribes were supported by nobles or equipped by themselves or neighborhood units. For the most part, these tribes remained fragmented, often quarreling among themselves. However, on occasion they united behind a leader, and that is when they became dangerous.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 28 OCT 2000 by Scott Parrino
Our best source for Mons Graupius comes from Tacitus’ account of Julius Agricola’s governorship of Britain. Tacitus was married to Agricola’s daughter, so his account is far from being dispassionate. Yet, Tacitus is first and foremost a historian, and while his account of the battle of Mons Graupius may show Agricola in a very good light, it is still first class historical reporting. Tacitus also shows enormous sympathy for the enemy, who were led by their competent war leader Calgacus. In fact, the speech that Tacitus puts into the mouth of Calgacus before the battle is an excellent attempt by the historian to see the war from the point of view of the northern British tribes of Caledonia.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 28 OCT 2000 by Scott Parrino
Like much of the history of the Hellenistic world, little is known of the so-called ‘Elephant Battle’, which pitted the Seleukid king Antiochos I Soter against the Galatians. Our best source for the battle comes from a short piece written by the Greek satiricist Lucian in the second century AD. Lucian’s intent was to criticize novelty in art, and make a case for artistic skill. As a result, the details of the battle were less important for Lucian than the overall lesson of the story. Having said this, however, Lucian is clear enough to give us a good sense of the course of the battle, and a rough idea of the make-up of the two armies.
HISTORICAL ARTICLE posted on 25 OCT 2000 by Scott Parrino
Pyrrhos fought the Roman consul Publius Dentius Mus near Asculum in Apulia. Both armies were about the same size, either 40,000 men or (less probably) 70,000 foot and 8,000 horse. Pyrrhos, now joined by his Oscan allies, had slightly more cavalry and 19 elephants. Dentius Mus had four legions, 20,000 Roman citizens plus allies, with a slight infantry advantage. He also had 300 special anti-elephant wagons, hung about with spiked beams and inflammable weapons.