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I know that by the first world war, the general staffs of various countries had worked out to the nth degree the spatial and temporal requirements to deploy and move armies about the field.
What information is out there about the US civil war? are there any staff studies available that have this kind of stuff?
When I was doing CW reenacting, I could probably have recited the line and verse of Cacey's Tactics and give you an answer. Unfortunately I don't work with CW topics much anymore.
If I recall, the standard numbers were 75 to 100 yards for the frontage of an infantry company. The frontage of a reasonably well strengthed regiment (three companies on front and two to three in support) was thus around 250 - 300 yards. But terrain and other factors played into these dispositions much more in 1860 than in 1810. Case in point, at Gettysburg on day 3, the regimental frontage for the units defending Cemetary Ridge was about 100 yards average. Yet if you look at Chickamauga fought later that year, several Federal regiments were covering 500 yards each.
Artillery also occupied between 75 and 100 yards for a battery. Often if the guns were packed closer togather they presented a danger, what with cassions sitting on top of each other.
Spacial relations in the line seem to have grown from Napoleon's time to Grant and Lee's time. Compare forces engaged and battlefield size from Waterloo and perhaps Gettysburg or better still the Wilderness.
Thanks Scootercat - some great info there. I'll give Casey's Tactics a look see.
The best resource I have immediately to hand is Shelby Foote's trilogy, but that is alot to wade through to pick out march lengths and frontages, although it is a great series so I may set out to re-read them anyway.
I'm hoping to find more contemporary studies to learn what were considered ideal, anybody got course syllabi from West Point in the 1860s lying about? *grin*
Also look for Jomini's "Precis de l'arte de guerre'. which was translated into many languages. You should be able to find a free copy on the 'net. It was required reading at most military academies in much of the 19th century.